Alice C. Linsley

Olupero R. Aiyenimelo, a member of the Biblical Anthropology Group, has asked if we might discuss the evidence that connects traditional religion of her homeland Nigeria with religion in India. She is interested in this after reading an essay I wrote on “Linguistic Evidence for the Afro-Asiatic Dominion”. Olupero noted that the Nigerian word ‘Orissa’ is also found in India and this prompted her curiosity.

I will reproduce some of the linguistic evidence for the diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic worldview in this thread, but mostly I’d like to address Olupero’s curiosity and focus on the evidence for an ancient order of priests (not shamans) who were largely responsible for the spread of Afro-Asiatic religious practices. I invite anyone from Open Anthropology Cooperative to respond as this project can contribute much to expanding our knowledge and understanding of the religion of ancient Afro-Asiatics.

What is meant by the “Afro-Asiatic Dominion”?

I coined the term “Afro-Asiatic Dominion” for lack of a better way to speak of the apparent correspondence of religious concepts and practices diffused across a vast area extending from west central Africa to the Indus River Valley and even among the Sarki who live as ‘Haruwa’ (priests) in the Tarai region of Nepal.

In the Hebrew Scriptures (Old Testament) the Afro-Asiatic Dominion is suggested by the correspondence of western (Afro) and eastern (Asiatic) traditions. The distinct traditions are seen in a detailed study of the 2 creation stories and the 2 flood stories, and in the consistent binary framework of both traditions. (For more on this read “Eden’s Flood East and West” here: http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2009/03/edens-flood-east-and-wes...

My thesis, based on 32 years of research, is that Afro-Asiatic religious beliefs and practices were diffused largely through the agency of priestly lines who intermarried according to a specific kinship pattern that I have identified. These were ruler-priests who exercised control of water systems at a time when west central Africa, Mesopotamia and India were wetter.

Further evidence of common religious views is found in the linguistic comparison of cognate languages and religious words used among peoples who share the Afro-Asiatic religious heritage. Consider the following examples:

The Semitic word ‘wadi’ = river, corresponds to the Sanskrit ‘nadi’ = river.

The Semitic root ‘mgn’ = to give, is the same as the Sanskrit ‘mgn’ = to give.

The Hebrew ‘rison adam’ = ancestral man is ‘adamu orisa’ = ancestral Adam in Hahm/Hausa languages of Nigeria. The Hausa word for human being is ‘dan adam.’ The Sanskrit word for male human is ‘manu’ which resembles the African word ‘adamu’ more closely than the Hebrew word.

The Hebrew ‘adamah’ = red clay/ground and the related Semitic words ‘dam’ = blood and ‘adom’ = red, are related to the Hahm/Hausa word ‘odum’ = reddish brown.

The Hebrew ‘bara’ = to begin, is related to the Yoruba/Hahm word ‘bere’ = to begin. There is an apparent relationship between the verb ‘to begin’ and the word Creator which in Hebrew is ‘bore’ and in the African Twi dialect is ‘Borebore’ = Creator.

The Hebrew ‘hay’ = ‘living being’, is related to the Hausa/Hahm word ‘aye’ = life, created world. Likewise, the Hebrew ‘iya’ = mother, corresponds to the Dravidian ‘ka ayi’ = mother, and the Hausa/Hahm ‘eyi’ = gave birth.

The Hebrew ‘abba’ = father, corresponds to the Hausa/Hahm ‘baba’ = father, to the Dravidian ‘appa’ = father, and to the Mundari ‘apu’.

The Hebrew ‘ha’nock’ = the chief, corresponds to the Hahm word ‘nok’ = “first ancestral chief”. The words Adam and Nok are paralleled in the Hebrew of Psalm 8:4 indicating recognition of both the mythical first father (Adam) and the historical ancestor-father (Nok) of the peoples descending from Nok (Enoch), the father-in-law of Kain and his brother Seth (Genesis 4 and 5).

The Hausa word for hunter is maharba. Compare this to the Hebrew word that appears in the Targum ‘nah shirkan’ (meaning hunter) and note the similarity to the Hausa word ‘sarkin maharba’ (meaning lead hunter).

The Sanskrit ‘svah’ = sky or heaven, corresponds to the Semitic ‘svam’ or ‘Sam-yim’ = sky or heaven. The Semitic resembles the Proto-Dravidian word ‘van’ = heaven. The Spanish ‘desvan’ (attic, rooftop) comes from the Arabic-speaking Moors.

The Sanskrit ‘Sakti’ = wine in Tantric use at harvest moon celebration, is the linguistic equivalent of the Falasha word ‘Sarki’ = harvest moon festival. http://www.scribd.com/doc/13982742/Sakti-and-Sakta-John-Woodroffe-E...

Sarki also means ruler among the people of Kano (biblical Kain), which is where Noah’s ancestors lived according to the Genesis genealogical data. Sarki are a people group who live in Orissa in India. Orissa is a Nigerian word and Kano is in Nigeria. Sarki also live as ‘Haruwa’ in the Tarai region of Nepal. The word Haruwa is equivalent to the ancient Egyptian word ‘Harwa” meaning priest.

Another word for priest is the Hebrew ‘Kohen’, equivalent to the Arabic ‘Khouri’ or ‘Kahin’ and the Persian ‘Kaahen’. Kaahen relates to the Persian ‘Kaahenaat’ which is translated "timeless being". This word is related to ‘Kahenat’ which means priest in the Ethiopian Church.

The Hebrew ‘yasuah’ = salvation, corresponds to the Sanskrit words ‘asvah’, ‘asuah’ or ‘yasuah’ = salvation.

The Hebrew root ‘thr’ = to be pure, corresponds to the Hausa/Hahm ‘toro’ = clean, and to the Tamil ‘tiru’ = holy. All are related to the proto-Dravidian ‘tor’ = blood.

The Hebrew ‘echad’ or ‘ehat’ = one, corresponds to the Syrian ‘eka’ and to the Sanscrit ‘eca’ = one. It is a cognate to ‘ikka’ = one, in the Gonga languages of southeast Ethiopia.

As many ancient Afro-Asiatic peoples used base 6 in counting and as the basis for their calendars, the number six is a significant indicator of related languages. Consider the following:

The number six in Proto-Dravidian is ‘caru’. This correlates to ‘koro’ in South Africa; to ‘karkia’ in some Chadic Languages; and to ‘korci’ in Meidob (eastern Sudan). The most striking similarity is between the Kanembu (Sudan) ‘araku’ and the Tamil ‘aarru’.

There are numerous other examples of linguistic affinity between peoples living in the Afro-Asiatic Dominion. Linguists have noted these correspondences. But can we identify features of ancient Afro-Asiatic religion? Yes. There is sufficient information to enable us to reconstruct a picture of what the ancient Afro-Asiatics believed and how they practiced their religion. Due to the length of this discussion, we will consider the seven key features of ancient Afro-Asiatic religious life next week.

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Alice,

Thank you so much for this. I will be studying your postings more in depthly as I am new to this all. I look forward to it all.

Olu
Those are some incredible cognates. Especially since "barah" is an OT word only used of divine creative action, not human creation (which is 'asah).
Good point!

I'm intrigued by the relationship of the Persian 'Kaahenaat’ - "timeless being" - and the Ethiopian word ‘Kahenat’, meaning priest. It is very suggestive, isn't it? Especially after our conversations about there being only One Priesthood.
Michelangelo, I'm not sure what you mean by 'missing link'. If you are asking whether we are scratching at a primal level of human existence, I think we are. The diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic religious worldview can be well documented yet is largely ignored by anthropologists. It is better recognized by those working in comparative linguistics. For example, 'Bahala' is the name of the Supreme God among the ancient Tagalogs of the Philippine Islands. The word is related to the Hindi 'Vahala'. The languages of the ancient Tagalogs and Hanunó’o both descend from Proto-Canaanite-Phoenician-Aramaic-Brahmi.

Read more here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hanun%C3%B3%27o_script

and here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Philippine_scripts

This is evidence of the diffusion of the Afro-Asiatic worldview through the agency of ruler-priests who controlled ancient water systems and evidently traveled more widely than we have imagined. This would explain how the practice of burying nobles in red ochre dust (some of it mined from Lebombo Mountains in southern Africa) came to be so widely dispersed between 80,000 and 20,000 years ago. You can read more about this here: http://jandyongenesis.blogspot.com/2007/10/mining-blood.html


Michelangelo Paganopoulos said:
Dear Alice,

Thanks for this. The search for an Afro-Asiatic Dominion is fascinating. Would an Afro-Asian religion be a missing link in our world history? I will be looking into it with most interest!

All the best, Michelangelo
Hello I will like to know as well if Fulani (Peul) Futa Jalon has relation to jewish descendent and or if they are among the ancient Jews converted to Islam and or the are among the 10 lost tribes of the Hause of Yisrael (Israelites). Currently I am into research on that matter it seems confusing and all I know is Fulani are not actually from Africa they did come to Africa hundred of years back I wish someone will help me over there pls
Peul is a French word borrowed the Wolof term Pël. This may correspond to the ancestors of Abraham who were African. Peleg (Gen. 10:25) comes to mind immediately. There was a parting of ways during his time, some clans moving east and some moving west.

Pursue the P-L, remembering that there are no vowels in Hebrew. Or this name could be P'el with the 'el' being the oldest known name for God in the Hebrew Bible.

Your best lead is to investigate the Old Egytpian, the most likely connection. One of the Black Pharaohs was called Pepi II (c. 2800 BC).

The Fulani most closely resemble the Egyptians and Somalians, which is their likely origin. Here is a website that may be helpful: http://www.egyptsearch.com/forums/ultimatebb.cgi?ubb=get_topic;f=15...

Best wishes to you in your research. I'd love to read it!

Ahmed Hasan said:
Hello I will like to know as well if Fulani (Peul) Futa Jalon has relation to jewish descendent and or if they are among the ancient Jews converted to Islam and or the are among the 10 lost tribes of the Hause of Yisrael (Israelites). Currently I am into research on that matter it seems confusing and all I know is Fulani are not actually from Africa they did come to Africa hundred of years back I wish someone will help me over there pls
Hello Alice
Thank you very much I do appreciated your effort to help me I do have a lot of things in my mind of which if I am to reveal them herein, its gonna be kinda disturbing or some sort of too much questioning but actually I got heaps of question to ask. Now that I got some clues about my tribe, a new journey began, the begining of the end. :)

Kind Regards
Ahmed H. Digare
Hello,
How many languages are said to be Semitic now a day? If Hausa language is said to be one, then the Hausa people are also Semitic? Hausa as major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family was said to be Semitic, how can you explain thes please. Where do Hausa people originated from, and if the word "Hausa" can be pronounced as Habesha, or hawassa or something.
Moreover is Hausa itself a race or ethnic? from the above lines also come a question if Hausa do like Puel has relationship to the House of Yisrael. About the similarities between Hausa, Hebrew and Arabic language I am well convinced that they sense to be alike since I am working on a software called Hausa/English translator also I was taught Arabic now I am learning Hebrew the similarities amazed me that much as in word like "ANA (arabic)" "ANI (hebrew)" "NI (hausa) which all can be translated as "I (English)" like to say "ani Israelite, = I am Israelite. ana banu Isra'ila = I am Israelite. or ni bani isra'ila ne. also = I am from the House of Israel.
I do find you post helpful Alice and I do hope you will response to my questions please.

Thanks
Ahmed

Thanks
Ahmed
Ahmed, It is good that you are investigating so thoroughly.

The Semitic languages are Arabic, Aramaic, Amharic, and Hebrew. Hausa is close to Arabic because the Hausa were converted to Islam in the 12th century. Muslim sultanates were well established by the 14th century in Mali, Chad, and Nigeria, and Islamic schools trained Africans in Timbuctu (W. Africa) and in Harar (E. Africa). Arabic was the language most widely spoken.

As to where the Hausa came from…this is an excellent question. I believe the oral tradition of the Hausa is reliable. It states that their founding families came from the east. This could be the region known today as Egypt, Ethiopia and Somalia. There are striking parallels between the stories in the first book of the Hebrew Bible – Genesis – and Hausa oral tradition. For example, the founder, the son of a great ruler, met his wife at a sacred well where he delivered her people from the spell of a great serpent. Most of the heroes of Genesis meet their wives at sacred wells or springs and are often deliverers. This is true for Moses also (the book of Exodus).

If you wish, I will write this for you and post it here soon. This is where Biblical Anthropology can help you find some answers.

I'm very interested in your suggestion that Hausa might be hawassa, which might be derived from the old Egyptian word for priest - harwa.

I hope that this is helpful. Best wishes to you.

Alice

Digare Ahmed H. said:
Hello,
How many languages are said to be Semitic now a day? If Hausa language is said to be one, then the Hausa people are also Semitic? Hausa as major branch of the Afro-Asiatic language family was said to be Semitic, how can you explain thes please. Where do Hausa people originated from, and if the word "Hausa" can be pronounced as Habesha, or hawassa or something.
Moreover is Hausa itself a race or ethnic? from the above lines also come a question if Hausa do like Puel has relationship to the House of Yisrael. About the similarities between Hausa, Hebrew and Arabic language I am well convinced that they sense to be alike since I am working on a software called Hausa/English translator also I was taught Arabic now I am learning Hebrew the similarities amazed me that much as in word like "ANA (arabic)" "ANI (hebrew)" "NI (hausa) which all can be translated as "I (English)" like to say "ani Israelite, = I am Israelite. ana banu Isra'ila = I am Israelite. or ni bani isra'ila ne. also = I am from the House of Israel.
I do find you post helpful Alice and I do hope you will response to my questions please.

Thanks
Ahmed

Thanks
Ahmed
Hello Alice
"If you wish, I will write this for you and post it here soon. This is where Biblical Anthropology can help you find some answers.".

Of course Alice that could be of much help and improvement I do have some wonderful question more to ask before then I may need your post on the above quotation

Thanks
Digare Ahmed
Ahmed,

I've written something for you on Hausa Origins and posted it for others to read. Perhaps it will stimulate a good discussion.

Best wishes to you and your family.

Alice C. Linsley

Digare Ahmed H. said:
Hello Alice
"If you wish, I will write this for you and post it here soon. This is where Biblical Anthropology can help you find some answers.".

Of course Alice that could be of much help and improvement I do have some wonderful question more to ask before then I may need your post on the above quotation

Thanks
Digare Ahmed

Hi,

Alice been two years since we had this discussion hope u r doing great

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