Below you find a copy of an entry of the Encyclopedia of Anthropology edited by H. J. Birx which was published in 5 volumes by Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks/ London/ New Delhi in 2006. It gives a general survey and some specific aspects of this new field of anthropological research. It initially outlines the world-wide problems with the art historian's Charles Jencks autocratic declaration of "the death of modernism" and the suggestion of 'Post-Modernism' as a new "style", in fact a fairly superficial and heterogeneous eclecticism. Young architects revolt worldwide against this 'diktat' from the side of the history of art and are forming organizations for the global study of ethnology/ anthropology of the house and architecture in general (Architecture et Anthropologie, Paris la Villette, IASTE, UC Berkeley, PAPER in New Zealand and Australia, Amos Rapoport, Milwaukee US, Paul Oliver, Oxford-Brookes UK). Most successful are the biannual conferences organised by the 'International Association for the Study of Traditional Environments' of the Architectural Department of UC Berkeley. For more than 20 years the materials of their bi-annual conferences have been collected and published by their 'Center for Environmental Design Research'. Another important collection of materials is the "Encyclopedia of Vernacular Architecture of the World" edited by Paul Oliver, a 3 folio-volume work, mainly a global anthropology of the house [note: what cultural anthropology had never produced because their interests were focused on mobile objects for their museums at home!].
In this wider framework the paper emphasises a wider classification of the architectural materials in the anthropological framework, the five classes like 1. Subhuman architecture (nest building behavior of the great apes), 2. Semantic architecture (or what can be called the field of global territorial demarcations, conventionally coined as 'life-tree' in archaeology, 'fetish', in ethnology, and 'maypole' in folklore studies. 3. Domestic architecture, that is huts and houses and their hardly know manifolds of forms and traditional environments they form. 4. Sedentary architecture, which is mainly focused on processes of settlement formation and characteristics of their organization, formal, spatial, social and territorio-political. 5. urban and imperial architecture. This 5th group is mainly focused on how evolved historical and civilized societies used the prehistorical concepts by means of monumentalisation and historical verbalization to bring the traditional sedentary societies under their own power and control.015cBirxEncAnthroQRK.pdf