This is an attempt of anthropological exploration of PvsNP world by thought and computational experiments (please,see as Introduction :http://arxiv.org/abs/0904.3074v1/ also
Website: http://quaanthro.lab
Location: Oxford
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Latest Activity: Jul 10, 2013
An Extension of Cherenkov Phenomena in Experimental Anthropology ( prototype of poster for Oxford Symp Quant Mat 18.04.2012 )
The eyes of primates and humans contain extraordinary retinal quantum-like detectors. As is known, the retina photoreceptors come in two types : rods (which are sensitive to low light and represent most receptors in retina ) and the red, green and blue cone cells which require higher levels of light but respond more rapidly and can discriminate colors with maxima at 419 nm ( blue cones ), 531 nm ( green cones) and 559 nm ( red cones ) respectively . Historically, the first systematic experiments on the sensibility of the human retina detectors to weak optical signals were conducted in the 1940s. [1][2].In particularly, Vavilov-Cherenkov experiments in Moscow [3] led to the conclusion that human rods and blue cones cells can detect a very small number of photons in observations of the special kind of radiation emitted by a charged particle moving superluminally (faster than speed of light , v > c/n ) in a medium. Today the Cherenkov quantum phenomena ( “Cherenkov radiation “) became fundamental heuristic for contemporary experimental physics, particle physics, space sciences, astronomy and physics of quantum materials . Fundamental result of Cherenkov’s quantum anthropology can also suggest the possibility to demonstrate some quantum phenomena (including such puzzling effect as quantum entanglement) with advanced human eye as biological detector. [4]
Let us consider, hence, conceptual relativistic context of the Cherenkov radiation. As is known, in Relativity theory there is 4-space-time out there. Cherenkov radiation manifest itself by producing some correlations between two classical events (i.e. between N particles emitted by the source A moving inertially with velocity greater than c through a medium of refraction index n, and, rod - and -blue retina detection, or B ). When particle moves faster than c speed of light, or speaking exactly, when it moves fast enough such that Ginzburg-Frank condition nv >1 is met , then it can either emit or absorb photons provided they lie on the conical surface cos θ° = 1/nv. In that case, human eye is able to detect superluminally moving light (Cherenkov radiation), typically less than 10 photons during an integration time of about 300ms. Thus, mathematically, A and B (two space-time locations ) must do something like communicating of the quantum information. However, in current physical literature such sort of conjecture on existence of superluminally moving signal ( communication ) in Cherenkov experiments with human eye is traditionally neglected. [5]. Usually theorists suggest that superluminal signals must contradict physical causality and Special Relativity postulate in general.
Nevertheless, some arguments in defense of an existence of superluminal signals and communications could be found in earlier calculations by Summerfield (1904) and Tamm-Frank in 1930s (in their famous letter to Summerfield [6]). Following Tamm-Frank, statement that uniformly moving charged particle cannot radiate, whereas merely superluminally moving charged particle can radiate could be defined as a general principle of physics.
Tamm-Frank’ calculations for Cherenkov signal or q charged particle with velocity greater than c through a medium of refraction index n(w) showed that signal intensiveness is
∂W/∂t = qv/c ∫( 1 - c/n(w)v ) w∂w.
Thus, by introducing a symbol 1 to mean “yes” (corresponding to a successful detection in the case of superluminally moving charged particle) and “no” or 0 for a non-detection in the case of uniformly moving charged particle, we can perform a kind of quantum communication, taking seriously.
In order to test our conjecture in new Cherenkov-like anthropological experiments with human eye as advanced quantum detector (used threshold meanings of rod-blue isomerization of the retinal chromophore of photopigments from the 11-cis to the all-trans configuration) we try to develop a toy model for experiments with biological detectors that captures basic definitions of an extension of Cherenkov phenomena in experimental anthropology .
References
[1] S.Hecht, S.Schlaer,M.Pirenne. J.Gen.Physil,25,819 (1942)
[2] H.Barlow. J.Opt.Soc. 46,637 (1956)
[3] P.A.Cherenkov.DAN USSR,2,(8),451 ( 1934 )
[4] N.Brunner, C.Branciard, N.Gisin. Can one see entanglement ? ArXiv:[ quant-ph ] 0802.0472v2 ( 2008)
[5] N.N.Rozanov .Uspechi Physics ,2,175 ( 2005 )
[6] V.L.Ginzburg. Radiation of uniformly moving sources .Uspechi Physics, 10,166(1996).
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Clayton Christensen and Andrew Lo delivered excellent and inspirational talks, challenging the audience to rethink key concepts in Management and Finance. You can now watch all the lectures online:
MANAGWatch Professor Clayton Christensen's lectures here >
FINANCWatch Professor Andrew Lo's lectures here >
A New Kind of Anthropology Based Economics
Clarendon Lectures in Finance 2013: The Adaptive Markets Hypothesis
Delivered by Andrew Lo, MIT
Lecture 1: Evolutionary Foundations of Behaviour and Rationality
Lecture 3: Hedge Funds: The Galapagos Islands of Finance
Lecture 2: Adaptive Markets in Theory and Practice
Abstract
One of the most influential ideas in the past 30 years of the is the Efficient Markets Hypothesis, the idea that market prices incorporate all information
rationally and instantaneously. However, the emerging discipline of behavioral economics and finance has challenged this hypothesis, arguing that markets are not rational, but are driven by fear and greed instead. Recent research in the cognitive neurosciences suggests that these two perspectives are opposite sides of the same coin. In this article I propose a new framework that reconciles market efficiency with behavioral alternatives by applying the principles of evolution| competition, adaptation, and natural selection|to nancial interactions. By extending Herbert Simon's notion of "satisficing" with evolutionary dynamics, I argue that much of what behavioralists cite as counterexamples to economic rationality|loss aversion,overcon dence, overreaction, mental accounting, and other behavioral biases |are, in fact,consistent with an evolutionary model of individuals adapting to a changing environment via simple heuristics. Despite the qualitative nature of this new paradigm,the Adaptive Markets Hypothesis offers a number of surprisingly concrete implications for the practice of portfolio management.
Comments : Andrew Lo had found simplification for probability matching problem in Economics in the terms of linear algebra + he uses forgotten social and paleoanthropology findings in order to justify that market irrationality = natural adaptation. Some details of my experiment ,thus, could be explained by Lo's irrationality concept ( however, quantum like games provide more advanced mathematics for it )
Final Conference,Royal Statistical Society ,16th April 2013
Quantum Cryptography and Big Data Analytics
My Poster
I gave poster + informal talk about my new field project . Some statements :
Being participant –and – observer ( in B. Malinowski sense ) of QCrypt scientific community I try to predict social impact of social media ( internet, nonclassical devices, new kinds of computers ) evolution. In particular, social impact of the introduction of quantum computers is investigated because it is expected that a quantum computer might one day be able to crack computer codes of the banks, military and governments. In order to provide comfortable transitive period for classical-quantum evolution in future, quantum cryptanalysts want to find plausible computational assumptions that help in developing robust so- called ‘post-quantum cryptography’ and its central assumption - an existence of one-way function. There are different candidates of complete one-way functions ( associated with P ≠ NP solution of the fundamental computer science problem ) , for example – RSA function, Levin’s complete function and one-way function suggested by Moor, Russell and Vazirini. The former is a classical public key scheme based on the hardness of the unique shortest vector problem for lattices. It can be argued to be resilient against quantum attacks by relating security guarantees to a hidden subgroup problem in dihedral groups for which despite much effort by experts on quantum algorithms, no polynomial quantum algorithm has been found…. Moore et al.’s proposal rests on an argument from lower bounds on the size of a quantum memory that would be required for the standard quantum approach to graph isomorphism by reducing again to a hidden subgroup problem…. The following topics are of particular interest of today’s quantum cryptanalysts : [a] Quantum attacks on currently deployed schemes: quantum cryptanalysts are interested in quantitative estimates for the resources (such as the number of qubits and quantum gates) that are needed to carry out quantum attacks against established cryptographic schemes. [2] Quantum algorithms to attack potential new hardness assumptions: Especially the quantum perspective on lattice problems, decoding problems for error correcting codes, computational questions in number theory, and multivariate cryptography are of interest. [3] Quantum computational assumptions: We are interested in problems that are currently considered as intractable, even for a quantum computer, and might have cryptographic potential. This includes technological assumptions, like bounded quantum-storage.
Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics
CABDyN Seminar
H. Peyton Young
Department of Economics, University of Oxford
"How likely is contagion in financial networks?"
Abstract
" Interconnections among financial institutions create potential channels for contagion and amplification of shocks to the financial system. We propose precise definitions of these concepts and analyze their magnitude. Contagion occurs when a shock to the assets of a single firm causes other firms to default through the network of obligations; amplification occurs when losses among defaulting nodes keep escalating due to their indebtedness to one another.
Contagion is weak if the probability of default through contagion is no greater than the probability of default through independent direct shocks to the defaulting nodes. We derive a general formula which shows that, for a wide variety of shock distributions, contagion is weak unless the triggering node is large and/or highly leveraged compared to the nodes it topples through contagion. We also estimate how much the interconnections between banks increase total losses beyond the level that would be incurred without interconnections. A distinguishing feature of our approach is that the results do not depend on the specific topology: they hold for any financial network with a given distribution of bank sizes and leverage levels. We apply the framework to European Banking Authority data and show that both the probability of contagion and the expected increase in losses are small under a wide variety of shock distributions. Our conclusion is that the direct transmission of shocks through network connections does not in itself have a major amplifying effect; other mechanisms such as loss of confidence and declines in credit quality are more important sources of contagion ".
Comments. It could be interesting for anthropologists as well, because phenomenon of contagion is considered in current holistic anthropology of crowd and complexity anthropology. Mathematically,contagion is a kind of entanglement described by methods of elementary algebra.There are new developments here in current literature and later we'll consider it in details..
Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics 4
Tuesday 26th February 2013
Stephen Kinsella
Kemmy Business School, University of Limerick
"Agent based models and stock flow consistent models: a coherent alternative?"
Comments: Agent based models (ABM) represent a type of " computational models for simulating the actions and interactions of autonomous agents (both individual or collective entities such as organizations or groups) with a view to assessing their effects on the system as a whole. It combines elements of game theory, complex systems, emergence, computational sociology, multi-agent systems, and evolutionary programming. Monte Carlo Methods are used to introduce randomness"(Wikipedia) Some ABMs are also called individual-based models and they could be used in complexity anthropology. Practical platform of ABM is formulated by system of high degree equations having solutions in complex numbers. This means that quantum approaches ( quantumness usually is associated with special kind of numbers called complex numbers (x+yi)) also possible.It is more direct and simple way to find right structure in unexpected complexity of economic holistic reality.
Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics 3
Today's speaker Professor Richard Wilson, Professor of Pattern Analysis, Department of Computer Science, University of York presented an essential block of Complexity economics ‘Generative models of networks’
It is very interesting that economists use physics based concept of Complexity Control as well as non-Euclidean structures of network data.
My comments : Indeed, graphs are two-dimensional plane descriptions of the networks, thus, we can use a sort of random walks in complex plane as well...Richard had found this is new idea.
Summary: " Graphs and networks are becoming increasingly important representations of data in a wide range of fields including engineering, neuroscience, social sciences, chemoinformatics and bioinformatics. This is because they give a natural representation to connections, relationships and interactions. One of the key questions that arises is how to model such networks. In this talk Richard will give an overview of some well known and some more recent attempts to model the structure of graphs and networks. In particular he will focus on recent attempts to construct a generative model for graphs which can be learnt from data. He will explain how simple models can be learnt and discuss the difficult issue of controlling model complexity. Finally He will mention some possible future directions for this approach".
Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics 2
Complexity Anthropology (introduced my article) and Complex Economics attempt to study nonclassical reality in economics. Recent event at CABDyN Complexity Centre showed that complexity economists try to use a new kind of "strategic games" where players are agree to disagree and Classical Probability is basic assumption.In comparison Complexity Anthropology uses non-classical (quantum) Probability and quantum-like game approach. Hence, more realistic analysis of human decision making in economy in vivo.In my refinements to Timo's talk new associations with Levi-Bruhl anthropology are introduced.
Tuesday 5th February 2013 (12:30 -14:00 Andrew Cormack Seminar Room)
Timo Ehrig
Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in the Sciences
Expectation formation: inductive reasoning about novel opportunities, and reflexivity
Abstract
"In this talk, I will explore how we (should) make decisions when we face novel opportunities, like Amazon in the perspective of 1998. Briefly, I will also give a taste of a new project (with J. Jost) in which we attempt to understand how agents read other agents' beliefs from prices and interest rates. Both projects
are linked by the general attempt to understand expectation formation in a world of incomplete and sometimes inconsistent knowledge.I will discuss how we (should) make decisions when probabilities are unavailable - how we (should) make use of induction. In particular, I will explore how expectations for novel opportunities -like Google in perspective of 2004- (should) come about.
To form such expectations deliberately, decision-makers need to make use of induction: In their reasoning, they derive plausible conclusions that go beyond the information in the premises, for instance, by using analogies.Taking a normative perspective, I explain why asymmetric expectations among individuals can exist, even when information is symmetric: Differences in the epistemic entrenchment of (defined as 'a preference ordering over') elementary inductive explanations of the novelty bring about heterogeneity in final expectations.I identify the skills of decision-makers to generalize, and to detect and resolve inconsistencies as psychological sources of advantages in forming expectations.
At the end of the talk, I will give a brief taste of a new project (with Juergen Jost) in which we attempt to explain theoretically how beliefs about the beliefs of other market participants flow into, and are read from interest rates. This project is related to the work on induction, as we attempt to understand the consequences of inconsistent and fragmentary knowledge for market interactions.
Through the talk, I will illustrate the theoretical questions with examples from an ongoing empirical project with K. Katsikopoulos from the group of G. Gigerenzer - in this project, we go into actual investment banks and interview workers to find out how they reason inductively, and how they reason about other people in the market."
Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics
Anthropology and Economics can have common evolution.Complexity Anthropology and Complexity Economics study the same objects but they have different foundational answers. Cpmplexity Economics forms part of the research platform within INET@Oxford. It builds on existing efforts by the Oxford Martin Programme on Complexity and the Oxford-based CABDyN Complexity Centre. The interdisciplinary research aims to apply perspectives and tools from complex systems theory, network theory, and evolutionary theory to deepen our understanding of economic phenomena, including financial crises, economic growth, inequality, and the management of systemic risk.
Timeline - November 2012
Complex systems in social sciences. Santa Fe.
As part of a three-year, $5 million grant from the John Templeton Foundation (www.templeton.org), the Santa Fe Institute is pursuing three long-term research projects that together seek deeper quantitative and theoretic understanding of the nature of complexity in the social and biological worlds:
◦The evolution of complexity and intelligence on earth
◦The hidden laws that pervade complex phenomena, especially biological and social phenomena
◦Universal patterns in the emergence of complex societies.
We can add that Mathematical Computational Complexity is very productive area as well.
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