A Note on Political Economy  

The Questions at Issue

What is domination?

Theories of Inequality

Inequality & Stratification

Women and Inequality

Scripted Domination


The Power of Ritual


Malfeasance in Office

Which is Normal: Cooperation or Competition?

What is Power?

Power Structures

Strategic Man

The Evolutionary Sequence

Civilization and Cynicism


1.  The Paleolithic and the Emergence of Complexity

The Long Paleolithic 

The End of the Ice Age

The Natufians of the Levant

Why did Foragers begin Farming?

The Need for Storage

The Question of Warfare

The Defender/Invader Syndrome

The Emergence of Complexity 

Heterarchy and Hierarchy 

Sources of Inequality 

Trade and Inequality 

Community vs. Aggrandizement

Primordialism vs. Constructionism  


2.  Implications of the Neolithic Revolution

Domestication: A Revolution

The Emergence of Rulership

The Rise of Political Economy

The Urban Revolution

The Jural Revolution    

Neolithic Offices and Normative Manipulation 

Augmentation of Office in the Neolithic & Beyond 

Ritual and War – Mayan Civilization

The Rise to Power through Military Service

Scripting Information for Power

The Power of Ideology

Mystification and Information Control among the Inka

Ziggurats & Other Monumental Structures

Mystification in the Sisala Gerontocracy 

The Role of Scribes & Scriptwriters 

What has Increased or Decreased with Time? 

The Rise States

The Rise of the State: Some General Comments


3.  Beyond Redistributive Societies – the Beginning of Aggrandizement  

Acephalous Societies

The Manipulation of Kinship

Big Men/Little Chiefs

Little Chiefs among the Yokut-Mono of California 

Clastres’ View of Little Chiefs 

The Emergence of Stratification in Little Chiefdoms 

Northwest Coast Big Men and Little Chiefs

The Tributary Mode of Production

The Construction of the Tributary Mode of Production

Redistribution and Means of Control 

A Cybernetic Perspective 


4.  Ownership and Corporate Groups in the Jural Revolution

Durkheim and Corprate Groups

Fabricating “Truth” and the Other 

What was Being Fabricated in the Jural Revolution? 


Corporate Groups and Ownership 

Storing and Stratification 

Communal to Private Ownership 


5.  Chiefdoms  

Why are Chiefdoms Especially Important? 

What are Chiefdoms? 

Why did Chiefdoms Arise? 

Two Strategies to Chiefship 

The Germanic Model: Loot and Reciprocity 

The Instability of Chiefdoms 

Collapse of a Chiefdom

Were Chiefs Altruists? 

The Fabrication of Chiefly Authority 

The Creation of Hereditary Succession 

Controlling Land and Labor 

Chiefly Insecurity 

Chiefly Myths and Using Deity 

A Shift in Decision Making 

Dismantling Egalitarianism 

Kingship and the Desire for Empire


6.  Aggrandizing Chieftains in the Scottish Highlands  

The Lowlands and the English 

Highland Clan Chiefs 

Outsider Views of Highlanders 

Traditional Hierarchy 

Feasting and Feuding 

Moving, Joining and Attracting: The Quest for Followers 

The Traditional Economy and its Transformation 

Commoner Resistance to Change 

Contact and its Influence 

Attempts at Cultural Genocide 

Fabricating Rents from Renders 

Broken Clans - Broken Men 

Collusion with the Crown 

The Infamous Clearances 

Conclusions: Lairds to Landlords 


7.  Kingdoms, Early States & Empires  

What are Kingdoms?

State Propaganda and the Extraction of Value

The Problem of the King’s Death 

The Risk of Despotism 

Kingly Display 

Kingship and Access to Wealth

Manufacturing Divine Kingship

Increasing Power and Wealth-Access under Divine Kingship

Abuse of Kingship among the Kuba

Abuse of Kingship in Henrician England

The Divine Kings of Southeast Asia

Kingship to Empire  


8.  Manufacturing the State and Serfdom  

Early History of Catalonia 

Fabricating State Law 

Status, Power and Poverty 

Society as it Developed in Early Catalonia 

The Peasantry  

Relations between Estates 

The Seigneurie Banale: Fabricating Serfdom by the Sword 

Fabricating Serfdom by the Pen 

The Emergence of Convenientiae  

The Remença War and the Sentencia  


9.  Fabrication, Imperialism and the Extortionate State in Catalonia

The Rationalization of Rule 

Centralization and New Forms of Power 

How the Crown used Documents to Dominate 

The Legalization of Oppression: Internal Extortion

Oral Custom to Written Law

A Pariah Ideology

External Extortion and the Reconquista

The Extortionist State: The Mediterranean

State Piracy


10.  Aggrandizement in the Modern World

Enron: A Case in Corporate Mismanagement

The Congo: A Case of Aggrandizement in the Fog of War


11.  Aggrandizement in the U.S. State-Management System

The Questions are Still at Issue

Which History?

The Camouflage of “Democracy”

Government Camouflage and the Military Industrial Complex

Institutional Growth and War

Lies about the Militarization of Space

It’s about Illusion

Commitment in the Modern World

Press Your Government

What We Need To Do



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